12 january 2017, 02:10
The history of the development of investment funds in the world originates from the first half of the 19th century. The first investment funds were established in 1822 in Belgium in 1849 in Switzerland and in 1852 in France. In the U.S. the first investment Fund was founded in 1860, it was a corporate investment Fund.
The first mutual Fund in the United States was founded in Boston in 1924. The rapid growth in the number of mutual funds has led to that already by 1951, their number in the United States exceeded 100 units and the number of shareholders of these funds 1 million.
The most significant development of the investment Fund industry in the United States and Europe began after the Second world war. By the end of 20 century investment funds have come to play a special role in the economies of the developed countries was the major subject of investment of household savings. Currently, the majority of the assets of investment funds in the world accounts for mutual funds.
Among the investment funds in the U.S. the most common so-called managerial companies. These companies are joint-stock companies to invest in which can buying their shares. The shareholder receives an income in the form of dividends and also due to the increase in value of these shares.
Management companies are divided into open-end investment company or mutual funds are mutual funds and closed-end investment companies or trusts closed. In Russia the analogue of the first are the mutual funds and the analog of the second joint investment funds.
Of all types investment companies the most popular mutual funds - 933%. They are similar to Russian mutual funds that buy back their own shares and so that the value of the shares is determined on the basis of the net assets. However, they are fundamentally different from Russian mutual funds because they are joint-stock companies.
Mutual Fund controlled by the Commission securities and exchange Securities and Exchange Commission SEC on the basis of the law of 1933 on securities. Mutual funds have the right to issue only ordinary shares, the income on which the investor cannot be determined in advance. It depends on the success of capital management Fund.
In 1990, the assets of mutual funds in the United States exceeded $ 1 trillion. $ . and now stands at 6 trillion. $ . To date, the number of American mutual funds exceeds 6 thousand. Almost 40% of Americans are investors of such funds.
In Europe, the specifics of the investment funds are determined by the features of this region. In the countries of the European Union Council Directive of 20.12.1985, was introduced the concept of UCITS Undertaking for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities an Agreement on collective investment in transferred securities.
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